Abstract of Poster Session
in XX International Congress of Entomology

Firenze, Italy


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【Species Phenomena on Biparental A-Lives】

On the species phenomena, such as species entity, speciation event, diversity among local poulations and intraspecific variety, biologists have proposed many models, concepts concerned and hypothetical visions. The validities of them, however, have been assessed simply by imagination subjectively. Exploiting the methods of simulation or A-Life, we are able to reconstruct the models, to observe the dynamics objectively and to evaluate or reject them fairly.

In our system (DEME, breeding A-Life species complex Stigmatiocon cornigera; DEMEV, S. mundana; DEME(W), S. fenestris), the rules are derived from three fundamental dynamical principles, (1) individuals reproduce through bisexual interbreeding, (2) combinations of character states affect success or failure of the mating, and (3) the character states are inherited, but mutation may break out accidentally. The "biological concept of the species" is fully adoptable to these kinds of A-Lives. We can identify or discriminate individuals to the species observing the concept (definition) of species.

The system emarges well-nigh every species phenomena, the unity of species, the transition among generations, character differentiation in local populations of the species, formation of cline, allo- and parapatric speciation and hybrid zone. When the concept of "niche" is appended in the system (ECDM, S. macacobia), the sympatric speciation and the secondaly sympatricity were observed. Note that the concept of "adaptation" is not assigned in the both systems at all.

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